用python发送GET和POST请求 | ntssl.cn

用python发送GET和POST请求

因为生产系统环境限制,导致使用postman等接口测试工具,所以需要一个程序来后台测试。

GET请求:

python2.7:

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import urllib,urllib2
url='http://192.168.199.1:8000/mainsugar/loginGET/'
textmod ={'user':'admin','password':'admin'}
textmod = urllib.urlencode(textmod)
print(textmod)
#输出内容:password=admin&user=admin
req = urllib2.Request(url = '%s%s%s' % (url,'?',textmod))
res = urllib2.urlopen(req)
res = res.read()
print(res)
#输出内容:登录成功

python3.x:

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from urllib import parse,request
textmod={'user':'admin','password':'admin'}
textmod = parse.urlencode(textmod)
print(textmod)
#输出内容:user=admin&password=admin
header_dict = {'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko'}
url='http://192.168.199.1:8000/mainsugar/loginGET/'
req = request.Request(url='%s%s%s' % (url,'?',textmod),headers=header_dict)
res = request.urlopen(req)
res = res.read()
print(res)
#输出内容(python3默认获取到的是16进制'bytes'类型数据 Unicode编码,如果如需可读输出则需decode解码成对应编码):b'\xe7\x99\xbb\xe5\xbd\x95\xe6\x88\x90\xe5\x8a\x9f'
print(res.decode(encoding='utf-8'))
#输出内容:登录成功

POST请求:

python2.7:

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import json,urllib2
textmod={"jsonrpc": "2.0","method":"user.login","params":{"user":"admin","password":"zabbix"},"auth": None,"id":1}
textmod = json.dumps(textmod)
print(textmod)
#输出内容:{"params": {"password": "zabbix", "user": "admin"}, "jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "user.login", "auth": null, "id": 1}
header_dict = {'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko',"Content-Type": "application/json"}
url='http://192.168.199.10/api_jsonrpc.php'
req = urllib2.Request(url=url,data=textmod,headers=header_dict)
res = urllib2.urlopen(req)
res = res.read()
print(res)
#输出内容:{"jsonrpc":"2.0","result":"2c42e987811c90e0491f45904a67065d","id":1}

python3.x:

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from urllib import parse,request
import json
textmod={"jsonrpc": "2.0","method":"user.login","params":{"user":"admin","password":"zabbix"},"auth": None,"id":1}
#json串数据使用
textmod = json.dumps(textmod).encode(encoding='utf-8')
#普通数据使用
textmod = parse.urlencode(textmod).encode(encoding='utf-8')
print(textmod)
#输出内容:b'{"params": {"user": "admin", "password": "zabbix"}, "auth": null, "method": "user.login", "jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": 1}'
header_dict = {'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko',"Content-Type": "application/json"}
url='http://192.168.199.10/api_jsonrpc.php'
req = request.Request(url=url,data=textmod,headers=header_dict)
res = request.urlopen(req)
res = res.read()
print(res)
#输出内容:b'{"jsonrpc":"2.0","result":"37d991fd583e91a0cfae6142d8d59d7e","id":1}'
print(res.decode(encoding='utf-8'))
#输出内容:{"jsonrpc":"2.0","result":"37d991fd583e91a0cfae6142d8d59d7e","id":1}

cookie的使用(python3.5):

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from urllib import request,parse
from http import cookiejar
#创建cookie处理器
cj = http.cookiejar.CookieJar()
opener = request.build_opener(request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj), request.HTTPHandler)
request.install_opener(opener)
#下面进行正常请求

python3 抓取网页资源的 N 种方法

最简单

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import urllib.request
response = urllib.request.urlopen('http://python.org/')
html = response.read()

使用 Request

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import urllib.request

req = urllib.request.Request('http://python.org/')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

发送数据

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request

url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT)'
values = {
'act' : 'login',
'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
'login[password]' : '123456'
}

data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data)
req.add_header('Referer', 'http://www.python.org/')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

发送数据和header

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request

url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT)'
values = {
'act' : 'login',
'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
'login[password]' : '123456'
}
headers = { 'User-Agent' : user_agent }

data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data, headers)
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

http 错误

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

req = urllib.request.Request('http://www.111cn.net ')
try:
urllib.request.urlopen(req)
except urllib.error.HTTPError as e:
print(e.code)
print(e.read().decode("utf8"))

异常处理1

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import URLError, HTTPError
req = Request("http://www.111cn.net /")
try:
response = urlopen(req)
except HTTPError as e:
print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
print('Error code: ', e.code)
except URLError as e:
print('We failed to reach a server.')
print('Reason: ', e.reason)
else:
print("good!")
print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

异常处理2

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import URLError
req = Request("http://www.111cn.net /")
try:
response = urlopen(req)
except URLError as e:
if hasattr(e, 'reason'):
print('We failed to reach a server.')
print('Reason: ', e.reason)
elif hasattr(e, 'code'):
print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
print('Error code: ', e.code)
else:
print("good!")
print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

HTTP 认证

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

# create a password manager
password_mgr = urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm()

# Add the username and password.
# If we knew the realm, we could use it instead of None.
top_level_url = "https://www.111cn.net /"
password_mgr.add_password(None, top_level_url, 'rekfan', 'xxxxxx')

handler = urllib.request.HTTPBasicAuthHandler(password_mgr)

# create "opener" (OpenerDirector instance)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(handler)

# use the opener to fetch a URL
a_url = "https://www.111cn.net /"
x = opener.open(a_url)
print(x.read())

# Install the opener.
# Now all calls to urllib.request.urlopen use our opener.
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)

a = urllib.request.urlopen(a_url).read().decode('utf8')
print(a)

使用代理

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import urllib.request

proxy_support = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({'sock5': 'localhost:1080'})
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy_support)
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)


a = urllib.request.urlopen("http://www.111cn.net ").read().decode("utf8")
print(a)

超时

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#! /usr/bin/env python3

import socket
import urllib.request

# timeout in seconds
timeout = 2
socket.setdefaulttimeout(timeout)

# this call to urllib.request.urlopen now uses the default timeout
# we have set in the socket module
req = urllib.request.Request('http://www.111cn.net /')
a = urllib.request.urlopen(req).read()
print(a)